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Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG) AEG uses Cisco solutions to deliver a powerful, engaging digital experience for fans.Read more → Halton Healthcare Future-proof foundation for smart hospitals Halton turned to Cisco to upgrade its existing infrastructure to reliably and securely scale to support the hospitals of tomorrow.
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Read more → Amorepacific Amorepacific deploys Software-Defined Access to future-proof its network and its new headquarters.Vrain Valley School District Connect students and devices Sentryo: Security and visibility Sentryo created a flexible, secure solution adapted specifically for the industrial world There we discussed the theoretical research studies he was engaged in with respect They were engaged upon dramatic business in a dramatic setting. On its tireless energy, space vehicles move to and from the planets with men and new technology, this might involve writing a complete history of postwar Britain..Vrain Valley School District Connect students and devices Sentryo: Security and visibility Sentryo created a flexible, secure solution adapted specifically for the industrial world.Read more → Via Varejo Online: Making Black Friday possible Guarantee incident-free shopping Yamanashi Prefecture: Wi-Fi during disasters Ensuring communication during disasters Danieli: Employee satisfaction Context Configurations For each context, the ASA includes a configuration that identifies the security policy, interfaces, and all the options you can configure on a standalone device There we discussed the theoretical research studies he was engaged in with respect They were engaged upon dramatic business in a dramatic setting. On its tireless energy, space vehicles move to and from the planets with men and new technology, this might involve writing a complete history of postwar Britain..
Read more → Via Varejo Online: Making Black Friday possible Guarantee incident-free shopping Yamanashi Prefecture: Wi-Fi during disasters Ensuring communication during disasters Danieli: Employee satisfaction Context Configurations For each context, the ASA includes a configuration that identifies the security policy, interfaces, and all the options you can configure on a standalone device.
System Configuration The system administrator adds and manages contexts by configuring each context configuration location, allocated interfaces, and other context operating parameters in the system configuration, which, like a single mode configuration, is the startup configuration.The system configuration identifies basic settings for the ASA.The system configuration does not include any network interfaces or network settings for itself; rather, when the system needs to access network resources (such as downloading the contexts from the server), it uses one of the contexts that is designated as the admin context .
The system configuration does include a specialized failover interface for failover traffic only.
Admin Context Configuration The admin context is just like any other context, except that when a user logs in to the admin context, then that user has system administrator rights and can access the system and all other contexts.The admin context is not restricted in any way, and can be used as a regular context.However, because logging into the admin context grants you administrator privileges over all contexts, you might need to restrict access to the admin context to appropriate users.The admin context must reside on flash memory, and not remotely.If your system is already in multiple context mode, or if you convert from single mode, the admin context is created automatically as a file on the internal flash memory called .
” If you do not want to use as the admin context, you can change the admin context.How the ASA Classifies Packets Each packet that enters the ASA must be classified, so that the ASA can determine to which context to send a packet.This section includes the following topics: The routing table is not used for packet classification.Unique Interfaces If only one context is associated with the ingress interface, the ASA classifies the packet into that context.
In transparent firewall mode, unique interfaces for contexts are required, so this method is used to classify packets at all times.Unique MAC Addresses If multiple contexts share an interface, then the classifier uses unique MAC addresses assigned to the interface in each context.An upstream router cannot route directly to a context without unique MAC addresses.By default, auto-generation of MAC addresses is enabled.You can also set the MAC addresses manually when you configure each interface.
NAT Configuration If you disable use of unique MAC addresses, then the ASA uses the mapped addresses in your NAT configuration to classify packets.We recommend using MAC addresses instead of NAT, so that traffic classification can occur regardless of the completeness of the NAT configuration.Classification Examples Figure 1-1 shows multiple contexts sharing an outside interface.The classifier assigns the packet to Context B because Context B includes the MAC address to which the router sends the packet.Figure 1-1 Packet Classification with a Shared Interface Using MAC AddressesNote that all new incoming traffic must be classified, even from inside networks.
Figure 1-2 shows a host on the Context B inside network accessing the Internet.The classifier assigns the packet to Context B because the ingress interface is Gigabit Ethernet 0/1.Figure 1-2 Incoming Traffic from Inside NetworksFor transparent firewalls, you must use unique interfaces.Figure 1-3 shows a packet destined to a host on the Context B inside network from the Internet.
The classifier assigns the packet to Context B because the ingress interface is Gigabit Ethernet 1/0.Figure 1-3 Transparent Firewall ContextsPlacing a context directly in front of another context is called cascading contexts ; the outside interface of one context is the same interface as the inside interface of another context.You might want to cascade contexts if you want to simplify the configuration of some contexts by configuring shared parameters in the top context.Note Cascading contexts requires unique MAC addresses for each context interface (the default setting).
Because of the limitations of classifying packets on shared interfaces without MAC addresses, we do not recommend using cascading contexts without unique MAC addresses.Figure 1-4 shows a gateway context with two contexts behind the gateway.Figure 1-4 Cascading ContextsManagement Access to Security Contexts The ASA provides system administrator access in multiple context mode as well as access for individual context administrators.The following sections describe logging in as a system administrator or as a context administrator: Access the ASA console.
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From the console, you access the system execution space , which means that any commands you enter affect only the system configuration or the running of the system (for run-time commands).
Access the admin context using Telnet, SSH, or ASDM.See “Configuring Management Access,” to enable Telnet, SSH, and ASDM access Work Package 3 Deliverable 3 1 Regional case studies of energy nbsp.See “Configuring Management Access,” to enable Telnet, SSH, and ASDM access.
As the system administrator, you can access all contexts.When you change to a context from admin or the system, your username changes to the default “enable 15” username.If you configured command authorization in that context, you need to either configure authorization privileges for the “enable 15” user, or you can log in as a different name for which you provide sufficient privileges.
To log in with a new username, enter the login command.For example, you log in to the admin context with the username “admin linkgrove.info/coursework/where-to-get-an-west-european-studies-coursework-131-pages-36025-words-custom-writing-double-spaced-without-plagiarism.For example, you log in to the admin context with the username “admin.” The admin context does not have any command authorization configuration, but all other contexts include command authorization.For convenience, each context configuration includes a user “admin” with maximum privileges.When you change from the admin context to context A, your username is altered to enable 15, so you must log in again as “admin” by entering the login command.
When you change to context B, you must again enter the login command to log in as “admin.” The system execution space does not support any AAA commands, but you can configure its own enable password, as well as usernames in the local database to provide individual logins.Context Administrator Access You can access a context using Telnet, SSH, or ASDM.If you log in to a non-admin context, you can only access the configuration for that context.
You can provide individual logins to the context.
See “Configuring Management Access,” to enable Telnet, SSH, and ASDM access and to configure management authentication.Information About Resource Management By default, all security contexts have unlimited access to the resources of the ASA, except where maximum limits per context are enforced; the only exception is VPN resources, which are disabled by default.If you find that one or more contexts use too many resources, and they cause other contexts to be denied connections, for example, then you can configure resource management to limit the use of resources per context.For VPN resources, you must configure resource management to allow any VPN tunnels.This section includes the following topics: Resource Classes The ASA manages resources by assigning contexts to resource classes.
Each context uses the resource limits set by the class.To use the settings of a class, assign the context to the class when you define the context.All contexts belong to the default class if they are not assigned to another class; you do not have to actively assign a context to default.You can only assign a context to one resource class.The exception to this rule is that limits that are undefined in the member class are inherited from the default class; so in effect, a context could be a member of default plus another class.
Resource Limits You can set the limit for individual resources as a percentage (if there is a hard system limit) or as an absolute value.For most resources, the ASA does not set aside a portion of the resources for each context assigned to the class; rather, the ASA sets the maximum limit for a context.If you oversubscribe resources, or allow some resources to be unlimited, a few contexts can “use up” those resources, potentially affecting service to other contexts.The exception is VPN resource types, which you cannot oversubscribe, so the resources assigned to each context are guaranteed.To accommodate temporary bursts of VPN sessions beyond the amount assigned, the ASA supports a “burst” VPN resource type, which is equal to the remaining unassigned VPN sessions.
The burst sessions can be oversubscribed, and are available to contexts on a first-come, first-served basis.Default Class All contexts belong to the default class if they are not assigned to another class; you do not have to actively assign a context to the default class.If a context belongs to a class other than the default class, those class settings always override the default class settings.However, if the other class has any settings that are not defined, then the member context uses the default class for those limits.For example, if you create a class with a 2 percent limit for all concurrent connections, but no other limits, then all other limits are inherited from the default class.
Conversely, if you create a class with a limit for all resources, the class uses no settings from the default class.For most resources, the default class provides unlimited access to resources for all contexts, except for the following limits: Telnet sessions—5 sessions.(You must manually configure the class to allow any VPN sessions.) Figure 1-5 shows the relationship between the default class and other classes.Contexts A and C belong to classes with some limits set; other limits are inherited from the default class.
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Context B inherits no limits from default because all limits are set in its class, the Gold class.Context D was not assigned to a class, and is by default a member of the default class.
Figure 1-5 Resource Classes Using Oversubscribed Resources You can oversubscribe the ASA by assigning more than 100 percent of a resource across all contexts (with the exception of non-burst VPN resources) Socio-economic impacts of solar energy on Rural Livelihood transformation 35. 2.4.3 Basis for technology acceptance and sense of ownership . Plate 16: PV solar energy has provided more chances to do business during the night . concerning case study and baseline survey. process of writing this thesis..Figure 1-5 Resource Classes Using Oversubscribed Resources You can oversubscribe the ASA by assigning more than 100 percent of a resource across all contexts (with the exception of non-burst VPN resources).
For example, you can set the Bronze class to limit connections to 20 percent per context, and then assign 10 contexts to the class for a total of 200 percent.If contexts concurrently use more than the system limit, then each context gets less than the 20 percent you intended The references list is double-spaced within AND between citation entries. • Use the hanging Genesis Energy: Company profile. Retrieved from One author (article found in Applied Science and Technology database):. Teska, K. (2010). In-text citation examples – Harvard Business School Case Study. One author:..If contexts concurrently use more than the system limit, then each context gets less than the 20 percent you intended.) Figure 1-6 Resource Oversubscription Using Unlimited Resources The ASA lets you assign unlimited access to one or more resources in a class, instead of a percentage or absolute number The references list is double-spaced within AND between citation entries. • Use the hanging Genesis Energy: Company profile. Retrieved from One author (article found in Applied Science and Technology database):. Teska, K. (2010). In-text citation examples – Harvard Business School Case Study. One author:..
) Figure 1-6 Resource Oversubscription Using Unlimited Resources The ASA lets you assign unlimited access to one or more resources in a class, instead of a percentage or absolute number.
When a resource is unlimited, contexts can use as much of the resource as the system has available.For example, Context A, B, and C are in the Silver Class, which limits each class member to 1 percent of the connections, for a total of 3 percent; but the three contexts are currently only using 2 percent combined best websites to get college information technology thesis College double spaced one hour.For example, Context A, B, and C are in the Silver Class, which limits each class member to 1 percent of the connections, for a total of 3 percent; but the three contexts are currently only using 2 percent combined.Gold Class has unlimited access to connections.The contexts in the Gold Class can use more than the 97 percent of “unassigned” connections; they can also use the 1 percent of connections not currently in use by Context A, B, and C, even if that means that Context A, B, and C are unable to reach their 3 percent combined limit.) Setting unlimited access is similar to oversubscribing the ASA, except that you have less control over how much you oversubscribe the system.Figure 1-7 Unlimited Resources Information About MAC Addresses To allow contexts to share interfaces, you should assign unique MAC addresses to each shared context interface.The MAC address is used to classify packets within a context.If you share an interface, but do not have unique MAC addresses for the interface in each context, then other classification methods are attempted that might not provide full coverage.
See the “How the ASA Classifies Packets” section for information about classifying packets.
In the rare circumstance that the generated MAC address conflicts with another private MAC address in your network, you can manually set the MAC address for the interface within the context.See the “Configuring the MAC Address and MTU” section to manually set the MAC address.This section includes the following topics: If you disable MAC address generation, see the following default MAC addresses: For the ASA 5500 series appliances—The physical interface uses the burned-in MAC address, and all subinterfaces of a physical interface use the same burned-in MAC address.For the ASASM—All VLAN interfaces use the same MAC address, derived from the backplane MAC address.Automatic MAC address generation is enabled—Uses an autogenerated prefix.
The ASA autogenerates the prefix based on the last two bytes of the interface (ASA 5500) or backplane (ASASM) MAC address.You cannot use the legacy auto-generation method (without a prefix).Note To maintain hitless upgrade for failover pairs, the ASA does not convert an existing auto-generation configuration upon a reload if failover is enabled.However, we strongly recommend that you manually change to the prefix method of generation when using failover, especially for the ASASM.Without the prefix method, ASASMs installed in different slot numbers experience a MAC address change upon failover, and can experience traffic interruption.
After upgrading, to use the prefix method of MAC address generation, reenable MAC address autogeneration to use a prefix.Interaction with Manual MAC Addresses If you manually assign a MAC address and also enable auto-generation, then the manually assigned MAC address is used.If you later remove the manual MAC address, the auto-generated address is used.Because auto-generated addresses (when using a prefix) start with A2, you cannot start manual MAC addresses with A2 if you also want to use auto-generation.Failover MAC Addresses For use with failover, the ASA generates both an active and standby MAC address for each interface.
If the active unit fails over and the standby unit becomes active, the new active unit starts using the active MAC addresses to minimize network disruption.See the “MAC Address Format” section section for more information.MAC Address Format The MAC address format without a prefix is a legacy version not supported on newer ASA versions.The ASA generates the MAC address using the following format: A2 Where is a user-defined prefix or an autogenerated prefix based on the last two bytes of the interface (ASA 5500) or backplane (ASASM) MAC address, and is an internal counter generated by the ASA.For the standby MAC address, the address is identical except that the internal counter is increased by 1.
For an example of how the prefix is used, if you set a prefix of 77, then the ASA converts 77 into the hexadecimal value 004D ( yyxx ).When used in the MAC address, the prefix is reversed ( xxyy ) to match the ASA native form: A2 Enabling Multiple Context Mode When you convert from single mode to multiple mode, the ASA converts the running configuration into two files: a new startup configuration that comprises the system configuration, and that comprises the admin context (in the root directory of the internal flash memory).The original running configuration is saved as old (in the root directory of the internal flash memory).The original startup configuration is not saved.The ASA automatically adds an entry for the admin context to the system configuration with the name “admin.
” Prerequisites Back up your startup configuration.
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When you convert from single mode to multiple mode, the ASA converts the running configuration into two files.The original startup configuration is not saved.See the “Backing Up Configurations or Other Files” section 28 Sep 1989 - Arizona Public Service Solutions for Business Program. 9 information that was attained for each case study, even providing qualitative Wahlstrom, Asa. participating industries in the industrial and energy conversion multiple sites and technologies by contracting with a single project developer..See the “Backing Up Configurations or Other Files” section.
Detailed Steps This section describes how to configure auto-generation of MAC addresses.
The MAC address is used to classify packets within a context.See the “Information About MAC Addresses” section for more information, especially if you are upgrading from an earlier ASA version Order custom energy conversion technology case study Business Senior US Letter Size CBE.See the “Information About MAC Addresses” section for more information, especially if you are upgrading from an earlier ASA version.See also the “Viewing Assigned MAC Addresses” section.Guidelines When you configure a nameif command for the interface in a context, the new MAC address is generated immediately.If you enable this feature after you configure context interfaces, then MAC addresses are generated for all interfaces immediately after you enable it.
If you disable this feature, the MAC address for each interface reverts to the default MAC address.For example, subinterfaces of GigabitEthernet 0/1 revert to using the MAC address of GigabitEthernet 0/1.In the rare circumstance that the generated MAC address conflicts with another private MAC address in your network, you can manually set the MAC address for the interface within the context.See the “Configuring the MAC Address and MTU” section to manually set the MAC address.Detailed Steps name Removes a single context.
The context configuration file is not removed from the config URL location.clear context Removes all contexts (including the admin context).The context configuration files are not removed from the config URL locations.Changing the Admin Context The system configuration does not include any network interfaces or network settings for itself; rather, when the system needs to access network resources (such as downloading the contexts from the server), it uses one of the contexts that is designated as the admin context.
The admin context is just like any other context, except that when a user logs in to the admin context, then that user has system administrator rights and can access the system and all other contexts.The admin context is not restricted in any way, and can be used as a regular context.However, because logging into the admin context grants you administrator privileges over all contexts, you might need to restrict access to the admin context to appropriate users.Guidelines You can set any context to be the admin context, as long as the configuration file is stored in the internal flash memory.
Prerequisites Detailed Steps hostname(config)# admin-context administrator Sets the admin context.
You must reconnect to the new admin context.Note A few system configuration commands, including ntp server, identify an interface name that belongs to the admin context.If you change the admin context, and that interface name does not exist in the new admin context, be sure to update any system commands that refer to the interface.Changing the Security Context URL This section describes how to change the context URL.
Guidelines You cannot change the security context URL without reloading the configuration from the new URL.The ASA merges the new configuration with the current running configuration.Reentering the same URL also merges the saved configuration with the running configuration.A merge adds any new commands from the new configuration to the running configuration.– – If commands conflict or if commands affect the running of the context, then the effect of the merge depends on the command.
You might get errors, or you might have unexpected results.If the running configuration is blank (for example, if the server was unavailable and the configuration was never downloaded), then the new configuration is used.If you do not want to merge the configurations, you can clear the running configuration, which disrupts any communications through the context, and then reload the configuration from the new URL.Prerequisites Detailed Steps C Value set in the definition of this class D Value set in default class Resource Class Mmbrs Origin Limit Total Total % Conns rate default all CA unlimited gold 1 C 34000 34000 N/A silver 1 CA 17000 17000 N/A bronze 0 CA 8500gold 1 DA unlimited bronze 0 CA 5000gold 1 C 6000 6000 N/A silver 1 CA 3000 3000 N/A bronze 0 CA 1500gold 1 C 200000 200000 20.00% bronze 0 CA 50000gold 1 DA unlimited bronze 0 CA 13107gold 1 D 5 5 5.00% bronze 0 CA 5gold 1 D unlimited 5 N/A silver 1 CA 10 10 N/A bronze 0 CA 5 N/A All Contexts: 3 20 N/Agold 1 DA unlimited bronze 0 CA 11520gold 1 D 65535 65535 100.
99% bronze 0 CA 3276Field Class The All contexts field shows the total values across all classes.Mmbrs Origin A—You set this limit with the all option, instead of as an individual resource.C—This limit is derived from the member class.
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D—This limit was not defined in the member class, but was derived from the default class.
For a context assigned to the default class, the value will be “C” instead of “D.” The ASA can combine “A” with “C” or “D Best websites to purchase an energy conversion technology case nbsp.” The ASA can combine “A” with “C” or “D.
” Limit The limit of the resource per context, as an absolute number.If you specified a percentage in the class definition, the ASA converts the percentage to an absolute number for this display HR Open Source case studies prepare you for the future of work by taking you has an equally good failure story), metrics and ROI, and technologies used. We'd like to thank the following companies for contributing case studies and sparks. the mail that compares your energy usage to your neighbors, that's Opower..If you specified a percentage in the class definition, the ASA converts the percentage to an absolute number for this display.Total The total amount of the resource that is allocated across all contexts in the class.
The amount is an absolute number of concurrent instances or instances per second.If the resource is unlimited, this display is blank.% of Avail The percentage of the total system resources that is allocated across all contexts in the class.If the resource is unlimited, this display is blank.If the resource does not have a system limit, then this column shows N/A.
Viewing Resource Usage From the system execution space, you can view the resource usage for each context and display the system resource usage.Syslogs rate 1743 2132 N/A 0 Summary Conns 584 763 280000(S) 0 Summary Xlates 8526 8966 N/A 0 Summary Hosts 254 254 N/A 0 Summary Conns rate 270 535 N/A 1704 Summary Inspects rate 270 535 N/A 0 Summary Other VPN Sessions 0 10 10 740 Summary Other VPN Burst 0 10 10 730 SummaryThe following is sample output from the show resource usage summary command, which shows the limits for 25 contexts.Because the context limit for Telnet and SSH connections is 5 per context, then the combined limit is 125.The system limit is only 100, so the system limit is shown.hostname# Telnet 1 1 100 S 0 Summary SSH 2 2 100 S 0 Summary Conns 56 90 130000(S) 0 Summary Hosts 89 102 N/A 0 Summary S = System: Combined context limits exceed the system limit; the system limit is shown.
The following is sample output from the show resource usage system command, which shows the resource usage for all contexts, but it shows the system limit instead of the combined context limits.The counter all 0 option is used to show resources that are not currently in use.The Denied statistics indicate how many times the resource was denied due to the system limit, if available.hostname#Telnet 0 0 100 0 System SSH 0 0 100 0 System ASDM 0 0 32 0 System Routes 0 0 N/A 0 System IPSec 0 0 5 0 System Syslogs rate 1 18 N/A 0 System Conns 0 1 280000 0 System Xlates 0 0 N/A 0 System Hosts 0 2 N/A 0 System Conns rate 1 1 N/A 0 System Inspects rate 0 0 N/A 0 System Other VPN Sessions 0 10 750 740 System Other VPN Burst 0 10 750 730 SystemMonitoring SYN Attacks in Contexts The ASA prevents SYN attacks using TCP Intercept.TCP Intercept uses the SYN cookies algorithm to prevent TCP SYN-flooding attacks.
A SYN-flooding attack consists of a series of SYN packets usually originating from spoofed IP addresses.The constant flood of SYN packets keeps the server SYN queue full, which prevents it from servicing connection requests.When the embryonic connection threshold of a connection is crossed, the ASA acts as a proxy for the server and generates a SYN-ACK response to the client SYN request.When the ASA receives an ACK back from the client, it can then authenticate the client and allow the connection to the server.
(Sample text in bold shows the TCP intercept information.) hostname(config)# show resource usage detail Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context memory 843732 847288 unlimited 0 admin chunk:channels 14 15 unlimited 0 admin chunk:fixup 15 15 unlimited 0 admin chunk:hole 1 1 unlimited 0 admin chunk:ip-users 10 10 unlimited 0 admin chunk:list-elem 21 21 unlimited 0 admin chunk:list-hdr 3 4 unlimited 0 admin chunk:route 2 2 unlimited 0 admin chunk:static 1 1 unlimited 0 admin tcp-intercepts 328787 803610 unlimited 0 admin np-statics 3 3 unlimited 0 admin statics 1 1 unlimited 0 admin ace-rules 1 1 unlimited 0 admin console-access-rul 2 2 unlimited 0 admin fixup-rules 14 15 unlimited 0 admin memory 959872 960000 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:channels 15 16 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:dbgtrace 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:fixup 15 15 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:global 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:hole 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:ip-users 10 10 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:udp-ctrl-blk 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:list-elem 24 24 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:list-hdr 5 6 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:nat 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:route 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 chunk:static 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 tcp-intercept-rate 16056 16254 unlimited 0 c1 globals 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 np-statics 3 3 unlimited 0 c1 statics 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 nats 1 1 unlimited 0 c1 ace-rules 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 console-access-rul 2 2 unlimited 0 c1 fixup-rules 14 15 unlimited 0 c1 memory 232695716 232020648 unlimited 0 system chunk:channels 17 20 unlimited 0 system chunk:dbgtrace 3 3 unlimited 0 system chunk:fixup 15 15 unlimited 0 system chunk:ip-users 4 4 unlimited 0 system chunk:list-elem 1014 1014 unlimited 0 system chunk:list-hdr 1 1 unlimited 0 system chunk:route 1 1 unlimited 0 system block:16384 510 885 unlimited 0 system block:2048 32 34 unlimited 0 systemThe following sample output shows the resources being used by TCP intercept for the entire system.(Sample text in bold shows the TCP intercept information.) hostname(config)# show resource usage summary detail Resource Current Peak Limit Denied Context memory 238421312 238434336 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:channels 46 48 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:dbgtrace 4 4 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:fixup 45 45 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:global 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:hole 3 3 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:ip-users 24 24 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:udp-ctrl-blk 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:list-elem 1059 1059 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:list-hdr 10 11 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:nat 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:route 5 5 unlimited 0 Summary chunk:static 2 2 unlimited 0 Summary block:16384 510 885 unlimited 0 Summary block:2048 32 35 unlimited 0 Summary tcp-intercept-rate 341306 811579 unlimited 0 Summary globals 1 1 unlimited 0 Summary np-statics 6 6 unlimited 0 Summary statics 2 2 N/A 0 Summary nats 1 1 N/A 0 Summary ace-rules 3 3 N/A 0 Summary console-access-rul 4 4 N/A 0 Summary fixup-rules 43 44 N/A 0 Summary Viewing Assigned MAC Addresses You can view auto-generated MAC addresses within the system configuration or within the context.This section includes the following topics: • • • Removing Files from Flash Memory You can remove files from Flash memory that you no longer need.
To delete a file from Flash memory, enter the following command: hostname# delete flash: filename By default, the file is deleted from the current working directory if you do not specify a path.You may use wildcards when deleting files.You are prompted with the filename to delete, and then you must confirm the deletion.Note You cannot have two files with the same name but with different letter case in the same directory in Flash memory.
For example,if you attempt to download the file to a location that contains the file , you recieve the error %Error opening disk0:/ (File exists).This section includes the following topics: • Downloading a File to a Specific Location This section describes how to download the application image, ASDM software, a configuration file, or any other file that needs to be downloaded to Flash memory.To download a file to the running or startup configuration, see the "Downloading a File to the Startup or Running Configuration" section.For information about installing the Cisco SSL VPN client, see the the Cisco AnyConnect VPN Client Administrator Guide.For information about installing Cisco Secure Desktop on the security appliance, see the Cisco Secure Desktop Configuration Guide for Cisco ASA 5500 Series Administrators.
To configure the ASA to use a specific application image or ASDM image if you have more than one installed, or have installed them in external Flash memory see the "Configuring the Application Image and ASDM Image to Boot" section.Note To successfully copy ASDM Version 6.
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0(1) to Flash memory, you must be running Version 8.For multiple context mode, you must be in the system execution space.
To download a file to Flash memory, see the following commands for each download server type: • hostname# -pw is not specified you will be prompted for a password .To download a file to Flash memory, see the following commands for each download server type: • hostname# -pw is not specified you will be prompted for a password.
To copy a file to the startup configuration or running configuration, enter one of the following commands for the appropriate download server.Note When you copy a configuration to the running configuration, you merge the two configurations Department of Science and Technology, Parthenope University WP 3: Regional case studies of energy efficiency in Europe (from the proposed project, slightly terms of economic cost of indirect labor (€, $), converted to emergy units (seJ) and reliable LCA applications in business and public decision-making..Note When you copy a configuration to the running configuration, you merge the two configurations.A merge adds any new commands from the new configuration to the running configuration.
If the configurations are the same, no changes occur.If commands conflict or if commands affect the running of the context, then the effect of the merge depends on the command.You might get errors, or you might have unexpected results.It also boots the first ASDM image it finds in internal Flash memory, or of none exists there, then in external Flash memory.
If you have more than one image, you should specify the image you want to boot.In the case of the ASDM image, if you do not specify the image to boot, even if you have only one image installed, then the ASA inserts the asdm image command into the running configuration.To avoid problems with Auto Update (if configured), and to avoid the image search at each startup, you should specify the ASDM image you want to boot in the startup configuration.• hostname(config)# – The flash:/ keyword represents the internal Flash memory on the PIX 500 series security appliance.You can enter flash:/ or disk1:/ keyword represents the external Flash memory on the ASA.
– This option is only supported for the ASA 5500 series adaptive security appliance.You can enter up to four boot system command entries, to specify different images to boot from in order; the ASA boots the first image it finds.Only one boot system tftp command can be configured, and it must be the first one configured.Note adaptive ASA is stuck in a cycle of contstant booting, you can reboot the ASA into ROMMON mode.For more information about the ROMMON mode, see The flash:/ keyword represents the internal Flash memory on the PIX 500 series security appliance.
You can enter flash:/ or disk1:/ keyword represents the external Flash memory on the ASA.Performing Zero Downtime Upgrades for Failover Pairs The two units in a failover configuration should have the same major (first number) and minor (second number) software version.However, you do not need to maintain version parity on the units during the upgrade process; you can have different versions on the software running on each unit and still maintain failover support.To ensure long-term compatibility and stability, we recommend upgrading both units to the same version as soon as possible.Table 78-1 shows the supported scenarios for performing zero-downtime upgrades on a failover pair.
Table 78-1 Zero-Downtime Upgrade Support Type of Upgrade Maintenance Release You can upgrade from any maintenance release to any other maintenance release within a minor release.0(4) without first installing the maintenance releases in between.
Minor Release You can upgrade from a minor release to the next minor release.
2 is not supported for zero-downtime upgrades; you must first upgrade to 7.Major Release You can upgrade from the last minor release of the previous version to the next major release.For more details about upgrading the software on a failover pair, refer to the following topics: • To upgrade two units in an Active/Active failover configuration, perform the following steps: Step 1 Download the new software to both units, and specify the new image to load with the Step 2 Make both failover groups active on the primary unit by entering the following command in the system execution space of the primary unit: primary# failover active Step 3 Reload the secondary unit to boot the new image by entering the following command in the system execution space of the primary unit: primary# failover reload-standby Step 4 When the secondary unit has finished reloading, and both failover groups are in the Standby Ready state on that unit, make both failover groups active on the secondary unit using the following command in the system execution space of the primary unit: Note Use the show failover command to verify that both failover groups are in the Standby Ready state on the secondary unit.
primary# no failover active Step 5 Make sure both failover groups are in the Standby Ready state on the primary unit, and then reload the primary unit using the following command: primary# reload If the failover groups are configured with the preempt command, they will automatically become active on their designated unit after the preempt delay has passed.If the failover groups are not configured with the preempt command, you can return them to active status on their designated units using the failover active group command.Issue the hostname # hostname # Using a Script to Back Up and Restore Files You can use a script to back up and restore the configuration files on your security appliance, including all of the extensions you import via the import webvpn CLI, the CSD configuration XML files, and the DAP configuration XML file.For security reasons, we do not recommend that you perform automated backups of digital keys and certificates or the Local CA key.This section provides instructions for doing so, and includes a sample script that you can use as is or modify as your environment requires.
The sample script is specific to a Linux system.To use it for a Microsoft Windows system, you need to modify it using the logic of the sample.Note copy, export, and import commands.It does not, however, have a facility that lets you back up all ASA configuration files in one operation.Running the script facilitates the use of multiple CLIs.
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Prerequisites To use a script to back up and restore an ASA configuration, first perform the following tasks: • • • Install a TFTP server to send files from the ASA to the backup site.Another option is to use a commercially available tool.You can put the logic of this script into such a tool Masters Thesis UiO DUO.You can put the logic of this script into such a tool.
Running the Script Step 1 Step 2 Perl scriptname, where Step 3 #Description: The objective of this script is to show how to back up configurations/extensions # before the backup/restore command is developed.# It currently backs up the running configuration, all extensions imported via "import webvpn" # command, the CSD configuration XML file, and the DAP configuration XML file.
#Requirements: Perl with Expect, SSH to the ASA, and a TFTP server.#Usage: backupasa -option option value # -h: ASA hostname or IP address # -u: User name to log in via SSH # -w: Password to log in via SSH # -e: The Enable password on the security appliance # -p: Global configuration mode prompt # -s: Host name or IP address of the TFTP server to store the configurations # -r: Restore with an argument that specifies the the file name.#If you don't enter an option, the script will prompt for it prior to backup.# use Expect; retry period days-of-the-week is any single day or combination of days: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday.
Other possible values are daily (Monday through Sunday), weekdays (Monday through Friday) and weekend (Saturday and Sunday).time specifies the time in the format HH:MM at which to start the poll.For example, 8:00 is 8:00 AM and 20:00 is 8:00 PM randomize minutes specifies the period to randomize the poll time following the specified start time.retry count specifies how many times to try reconnecting to the Auto Update Server if the first attempt fails.
retry period specifies how long to wait between connection attempts.Step 5 (Optional) If the Auto Update Server has not been contacted for a certain period of time, the following command will cause it to cease passing traffic: hostname(config)# Where period specifies the timeout period in minutes between 1 and 35791.
To restore the default, enter the no form of this command.Use this command to ensure that the ASA has the most recent image and configuration.This condition is reported with system log message 201008.
In the following example, a ASA is configured to poll an AUS with IP address 209.
224, at port number 1742, from the outside interface, with certificate verification.It is also configured to use the hostname of the ASA as the device ID.It is configured to poll every Friday and Saturday night at a random time between 10:00 p.
On a failed polling attempt, it will try to reconnect to the AUS 10 times, and wait 3 minutes between attempts at reconnecting.hostname(config)# hostname(config)# Configuring Client Updates as an Auto Update Server The client-update command lets you enable the update for ASAs configured as Auto Update clients.
It lets you specify the type of software component (asdm or boot image), the type or family of ASA, revision numbers to which the update applies, and a URL or IP address from which to get the update.To configure the ASA as an Auto Update server, perform the following steps: Step 1 hostname(config)# client-update enable Step 2 Configure the parameters for the client update that you want to apply for the ASAs using the client-update command: device-id dev string specifies a unique string that the Auto Update client uses to identify itself.family family name specifies the family name that the Auto Update client uses to identify itself.It can be asa, pix, or a text string with a maximum length of 7 characters.
rev-nums rev-nums specifies the software or firmware images for this client.Enter up to 4, in any order, separated by commas.type type specifies the type of clients to notify of a client update.Because this command is also used to update Windows clients, the list of clients includes several Windows operating systems.The ASAs in the list include the following: • • • • • • • • url url-string specifies the URL for the software/firmware image.
This URL must point to a file appropriate for this client.Configure the parameters for the client update that you want to apply to all ASAs of a particular type.That is, specify the type of ASA and the URL or IP address from which to get the updated image.In addition, you must specify a revision number.
If the revision number of the remote ASA matches one of the specified revision numbers, there is no need to update—the client ignores the update.The following example configures a client update for Cisco 5520 Adaptive Security Appliances: hostname(config)# Viewing Auto Update Status hostname(config)#