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ScienceDirectParadox, programming, and learning probability: A case study in a connected mathematics framework☆Author links open overlay panelUriWilenskyShow moreAbstractFormal methods abound in the teaching of probability and statistics. In the Connected Probability project, we explore ways for learners to develop their intuitive conceptions of core probabilistic concepts. This article presents a case study of a learner engaged with a probability paradox. Through engaging with this paradoxical problem, she develops stronger intuitions about notions of randomness and distribution and the connections between them. The case illustrates a Connected Mathematics approach: that primary obstacles to learning probability are conceptual and epistemological; that engagement with paradox can be a powerful means of motivating learners to overcome these obstacles; that overcoming these obstacles involves learners making mathematics—not learning a “received” mathematics and that, through programming computational models, learners can more powerfully express and refine their mathematical understandings.